35 Important Vitamins & Minerals for Dog Nutrition

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For dog nutrition, vitamins together with minerals make up about 2% of any formulated diet for dogs. Minerals do not contain any calories or energy themselves, but they assist the body in energy production.

Although the dog’s body can make some vitamins, it cannot make minerals. Natural minerals come from the food dogs eat, but the availability of the minerals is complex. Like vitamins, minerals function as coenzymes, enabling the body to perform its activities quickly and accurately. They are needed for the proper composition of body fluids, the formation of blood and bone, and the maintenance of a healthy nervous system. Minerals are stored primarily in the body’s bone and muscle tissue. In extremely large doses, minerals can be toxic.

The National Research Council provides dog food manufacturers with the Minimum Daily Requirement of known nutrient figures to use in the recipes for dog food.

The way dog food is made, the source Of ingredients, the breed, and age of the dog and the climate in which the dog lives all will have an effect on mineral needs. The need for minerals for differing life stages has not been calculated, but the assumption of the NRC is that more is needed during growth, gestation, lactation, old age, and when a dog is working.

Here, we will be discussing the vitamins & minerals and its sources so that you can make nutritious dog food at home.


1. Vitamin A

  • Source: Carrots, yellow fruit, green leafy vegetables, liver, egg, and milk products.
  • Benefits: Needed for the eyes, appetite, bone remodeling, nerve functions (especially the optic and cranial nerves), skin, hair, teeth, and gums, as well as building resistance against respiratory disorders. Healthy eyes, curing night blindness, laying down new bone during growth, and promoting healthy teeth.

2. Vitamin D

  • Source: Fish, milk, and dairy products. A small amount of vitamin D is found in mushrooms and dark green leafy vegetables.
  • Benefits: Absorption of Vitamin A, proper bone growth, and strengthening of the teeth. Used in the treatment of poor eyesight.

3. Vitamin E

  • Source: Lettuce, celery, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, whole wheat bread, alfalfa, salad dressings made with safflower oil.
  • Benefits: An antioxidant, it prevents unsaturated fatty acids, sex hormones, and fat-soluble vitamins from being destroyed in the body by free radicals. It gives the tissues oxygen and reduces the need for oxygen intake. Prevents rancidity when added to Other substances. Dilates blood vessels and improves circulation. Prevents scar tissue from forming and aids in the healing of burns and sores. It helps to prevent blood clots. Protects the lungs and other tissues from air pollution. Retards the aging process. Essential for the healthy function of reproductive Organs. Used successfully in the treatment of sterility, heart disease, arthritis in old dogs, leg ulcers, and hypoglycemia. Promotes testicle growth and production of sperm. Prevents weak and dead puppies, and weakness of the skeletal muscles. Vitamin E is stored in fatty tissues. It is essential for the nuclei of cells and the utilization of sex hormones, cholesterol, and vitamin D. Destroyed by rancid fats or ultraviolet light (sunlight).

4. Vitamin K

  • Source: yogurt, alfalfa, egg yolk, safflower and soybean oils, kelp, green leafy vegetables, fish and fish liver oils, cabbage, kale, and cauliflower.
  • Benefits: Essential in the formation of the blood clotting factor, prothrombin.

5. Vitamin C

  • Source: Tomatoes, citrus fruits, green peppers, cabbage, parsley, watercress, cantaloupe, watermelon, raspberries, and certain grasses, and weeds, especially goldenrod.
  • Benefits: Needed for healthy teeth, gums, and bones. Strengthens all connective tissue. Speeds wound healing and promote capillary integrity. Help provide immunity to disease. Used in growing dogs to promote collagen production. Females in season, in whelp, and nursing mothers, as well as geriatric dogs that are getting a bit stiff in the joints, all benefit from vitamin C supplementation. It helps to bring down temperatures. It should always be used in conjunction with steroid therapy. Use when any drugs are being used—e.g., antibiotics, wormers, etc.

6. Vitamin B-Complex

  • Source: Liver, milk, eggs, brewers yeast, wheat bran, wheat germ, molasses, kidney, heart.
  • Benefits: Promoting growth, helping to fight motion sickness. It helps the body deal with stress. Promotes healing after Surgery. B-complex vitamins are important to the functioning of the nervous system and help energize and relax if suffering from fatigue. The liver, skin, hair, eyes, linings of the body, especially those around the mouth, are affected by the B vitamins The whole gastrointestinal tract works better with correct levels of vitamin B in the system. Promotes proper bowel function. many skin conditions, rashes, dermatitis, cracks around the mouth, as well as burning or sore tongue

7. Vitamin B1-Thiamine

  • Source: Beef, liver, oats, eggs, milk, legumes, yeast, peas.
  • Benefits: Promoting growth, improving mental attitude, fighting nausea from travel sickness. Used in the treatment of the herpes virus.

8. Vitamin B2-Riboflavin

  • Source: Eggs, meat, brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, soybean, green leafy vegetables, Brussel sprouts
  • Benefits: Promoting growth and reproduction. Promotes healthy skin, hair, and nails help to eliminate lesions and cracks of mouth, lips, and tongue. Useful in the treatment of bloodshot eyes, itching, and burning cataracts. Skin and hair, and splitting nails. Prevents stool eating of dogs.

9. Vitamin B3-Niacin, niacinamide, nicotinic acid

  • Source: Yeast, milk, green leafy vegetables, meat, poultry, cereals
  • Benefits: Relieving irritability as well as allergic to some fruits and vegetables. Stimulates circulation, reduces cholesterol level and is important to the normal function of the nervous system and the brain. It is needed for the proper synthesis of sex such as estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and corticosteroids. Improves utilization and has been used successfully in cases of digestive disorders such as diarrhea, constipation, and indigestion. It helps in the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, and aids in the regulation oi blood Sugar. Useful in the treatment of skin, teeth, and gum diseases.

10. Vitamin B5-Pantothenic acid

  • Source: Liver, egg yolk, chicken, yogurt, fish, broccoli
  • Benefits: Helping to prevent hair loss, turning graying hair back to natural color, anti-stress vitamin, anti-aging, involved in all functions of the helpful in treating hypoglycemia; painful, burning fact; adrenal and emotional exhaustion. Used in dogs that grind their teeth at night or who have epilepsy, neuritis, and multiple sclerosis. Used as a treatment for mental in dogs.

11. Vitamin B6-Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine

  • Source: Eggs, oatmeal, wheat germ, brown rice, chicken
  • Benefits: Essential for females in retaining correct fluid balances, Needed for the correct absorption of protein and fat. It helps to prevent skin disorders and nervousness. Alleviates nausea In pregnancy. Helps with the whelping process, reduces edema, muscle spasms, leg cramps, numbness in extremities experienced at night- Acts us a natural diuretic. It helps fight mental depression, skin disorders, sore mouth and lips, bad breath, kidney stones, loss of muscular control, and senility. Controls dandruff. Used in treatment Of epilepsy

12. Vitamin B12-Cobalamine

  • Source: Eggs, Milk, eggs, fish, meat & poultry
  • Benefits: Forms and regenerates red cells, prevents pernicious anemia, promotes growth, and increases appetite in puppies– Increases energy, helps the body assimilate fats, carbohydrates, and protein. Involved in metabolic and enzymatic processes of protein breakdown and assimilation. Helpful for females going into the season and coming out of season.

13. Biotin

  • Source: Egg yolks, liver, brewers yeast, and milk products.
  • Benefits: Helps to keep hair from turning prevents forms of baldness; restores healthy hair growth; alleviates eczema, dermatitis, dandruff, skin disorders, lung infections, loss of appetite, and lethargy.

14. Choline

  • Source: Egg yolks, liver, brewers yeast, and milk products.
  • Benefits: Helps function in older dogs, Keeps the thymus healthy, as well as the liver gallbladder. for nerve conditions especially in the fee. Aids in detoxifying the liver and reduces stones In the gallbladder. It is used in the treatment of many kidney conditions. Choline reduces fat around the liver and maintains the integrity of the myelin sheath

15. Folic Acid

  • Source: Raw green leafy vegetables, raw liver, raw kidney, brewers yeast, and some raw foods.
  • Benefits: Correcting pigmentation problems. Stops spontaneous abortion in dogs, difficult labor, and dead puppies. essential in the utilization of amino acids and glucose. Lactating females have a greater need for folic acid. Has Been used successfully used for chronic diarrhea, mal-absorption problems to stimulate the appetite. Counteracts birth defects.

16. Inositol

  • Source: Brewers yeast, blackstrap molasses, liver, and cantaloupe.
  • Benefits: Helps to lower cholesterol levels. It helps hair growth and prevents skin problems. Burns up fat.

17. PABA

  • Source: Kidney, molasses, liver, yogurt, and wheat germ.
  • Benefits: Keeps skin healthy and supple. In combination with vitamin B complex and vitamin helps restore color of the coat

18. Vitamin B13

  • Source: Carrots, beets, artichokes
  • Benefits: It helps to metabolize folic acid and vitamin B-12.

19. Vitamin B15

  • Source: Beef blood, brown rice, brewers yeast.
  • Benefits: Regulates fat metabolism and stimulates the immune response.

20. Vitamin F

  • Source: Vegetable oils like safflower, sunflower, linseed oil, and wheat germ
  • Benefits: Promotes healthy skin and hair, prevents cholesterol buildup, compacts heart disease, and burns saturated fats.

21. Vitamin P

  • Source: Citrus fruits, strawberries, prunes, apricots, blackberries.
  • Benefits: Alleviates respiratory infections in dogs, bleeding gums, skin problems, and inner ear diseases.


22. Calcium

  • Source: Milk(especially goat milk), cheese, eggshells, and most raw vegetables. Other sources include Brussels sprouts, sesame seeds, broccoli, yogurt, parsley, black-strap molasses, sardines, and kelp.
  • Benefits: Need for proper bone and teeth formation, a proper heart function, and normal clotting of blood. Prevents porous bones, Need for pregnancy, and lactation of female dogs.

23. Phosphorus

  • Source: Milk products, cheeses, and eggs; meat, chicken, fish, turkey, dairy products, whole grains, brewers yeast, wheat germ, and bran.
  • Benefits: Normal brain function, stimulates hair growth, maintains bone mass, keeps teeth enamel strong.

24. Magnesium

  • Source: Kelp, almonds, apples, raw and cooked green leafy vegetables, figs, and safflower oil.
  • Benefits: Helps in reducing cholesterol levels, treatment of nervousness, neurovascular problems, and depression in dogs.

25. Potassium

  • Source: Bananas, potatoes, green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, mint leaves, bee pollen, alfalfa, tomatoes, parsley, rice bran, dried apricots, and dates.
  • Benefits: It helps the body in eliminating waste through the kidneys and helps purify the blood. It also helps in the proper function of the heart and nervous system.

26. Sodium

  • Source: Kelp, celery, carrots, spinach, okra, strawberries, apples, asparagus, beets, cucumbers, plums, radishes, Swiss chard, and turnips.
  • Benefits: Helping in the proper function of muscles and nerves and preventing heat prostration. Keeps water levels in the body constant and prevents dry skin and loss of hair coat; prevents exhaustion and fatigue. Contributes to the formation of saliva and digestive enzymes.

27. Chlorine

  • Source: Tomatoes, celery, iceberg lettuce, kelp, spinach, cabbage, parsnips, and radishes
  • Benefits: Helps to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. Helping with proper digestion.

28. Iron

  • Source: Liver, molasses, kelp, yellow dock, beets, green vegetables, brewers yeast, wheat bran, wheat germ, parsley, millet, prunes, raisins, eggs, lamb, pork, lentils, peanuts, brown rice, ripe olives, chicken, artichokes, broccoli, whole wheat bread, and cauliflower.
  • Benefits: Essential for life, Aiding growth and resistance to diseases, preventing fatigue and anemia, aiding in good skin ton.

29. Copper

  • Source: Green leafy vegetables, liver, whole wheat products, prunes, raisins, almonds, and beans.
  • Benefits: Preventa anemia. Controls histamine, enhances energy. Gives hair and skin their pigmentation and color.

30. Manganese

  • Source: Eggs, whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables, peas, and beets.
  • Benefits: Need for normal bone structure. Important for the formation of thyroxine, synthesizes cholesterol, and mucopolysaccharides.

31. Iodine

  • Source: Kelp, Swiss chard, turnip greens, watercress, pears, pineapples, artichokes, citrus fruit, and egg yolks.
  • Benefits: Need for proper growth and development, protein digestion. Regulates all body functions. Bone and nerve formation, reproduction, condition of skin, hair, nails, and teeth, and mental state are all governed by the thyroid.

32. Fluorine

  • Source: Oats, milk, cheese, carrots, garlic, beet tops, green vegetables, cabbage, and watercress.
  • Benefits: Prevents mottling of the enamel of young adult dog teeth and tooth decay. Helps to reduce bone loss

33. Selenium

  • Source: Bran, tuna, tomatoes, broccoli, and brewers yeast.
  • Benefits: Elasticity in the tissues. Effective with vitamin E in treating lameness in older dogs. It helps to neutralize certain carcinogens and provide protection against cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.

34. Sulfur

  • Source: Meat, fish, eggs, cheese, dried apricots.
  • Benefits: Preventing skin disorders, eczema, and dermatitis. Used topically in many preparations for wound healing and skin problems.

35. Zinc

  • Source: Beef, liver, seeds of sunflowers or pumpkins, tuna fish, peanuts, whole grains. Small amounts are found in peas, carrots, beets, and cabbage.
  • Benefits: Needed for proper growth. Involved in many enzyme systems. It helps the liver to detoxify poisons. It helps to maintain vitamin A levels in the body. Needed for healthy skin, hair, and nails. It helps in the formation of collagen and improves wound healing.

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